However, in our study the first three were used, such as: ‘Living with diabetes’ which constitutes a review of diabetes and includes a description of what the disease is as well as some of the most widely spread myths about diabetes. The framework has developed through our research into breastfeeding support and weight management groups, which included systematic reviews, mixed method group interventions and ethnographic studies [2, 16]. However, in the intervention group participants’ BMI decreased significantly after the intervention, with an average change value of −0.7 (95% CI: −0.9, −0.1) while in the control group no statistical change was observed (Table II). Ninety percent of these people suffer from type 2 DM [1]. This finding is not in line with other researchers’ findings. Also, according to the same study, significant changes were observed in fasting blood glucose in 12 months (P = 0.000), diabetes knowledge in 6 months (P = 0.000) and self-management skills in 6 months (P = 0.015) self-efficacy/empowerment in 6 months (P = 0.012) as well as weight in 12 months (P = 0.021) [7]. Specific objectives of the study include evaluation of: The changes in the lipidemic profile [triglycerides, high density lipoprotein (HDL) and low density lipoprotein (LDL)]. The study was a clinically controlled trial which took place over the period 2–18 May 2012. Introduction To Health Education Objectives At the end of this chapter, the trainees will be able to: • Explain the concept of Health. CMs cover four issues about diabetes. The findings of this study show that a short educational programme in a group using the Conversation Maps ‘Learning About Diabetes’ may be more effective than individual education in regulating HbA1 and HDL in people with type 2 DM. Demographic data and risk factors of the study groups before the intervention. Focus groups are facilitated group discussions. At the same time, patients are given the chance to evaluate their own overall health status. Group based DSME is widespread due to being a cheaper method and the added advantages of having patient meet and discuss with each other. Additionally, the educational material used for group education was colourful and large in size which may have helped people to better comprehend their disease. [11] supported that, compared with individual counselling, group self-management education was associated with fewer acute complications and some improvements in the care process. Today’s state-of-the-art health education curricula reflect the growing body of research that emphasizes: Teaching functional health information (essential knowledge). There was no statistical difference in the change in BMI between the two groups. The Peer Education Project is a secondary school based, educational programme that aims to give young people the skills and knowledge they need to safeguard their mental health, and that of their peers. People with type 2 DM who have been regular patients of the physicians at the Health Centre participated in the study. The research protocol was assessed by the Director of the Health Centre. Ninety percent of these people suffer from type 2 DM [1]. In our study, a significant change between the two groups was observed in favour of the CM group, although both study groups significantly improved HbA1c. It is useful for providing health education (message) to a group of audience. The main outcome measures were HbA1c, body mass index (BMI), triglycerides, high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), measured at baseline and 6 months after the intervention. Firstly, we will discuss the main and important advantages. Social support groups provide mutual aid and self-help for people facing chronic disease, life-threatening illness and dependency issues (Cline, 1999)., Receive exclusive offers and updates from Oxford Academic, The effects and costs of a group-based education programme for self-management of patients with Type 2 diabetes. The DE-PLAN study, Effectiveness of PRECEDE model for health education on changes and level of control of HbA1c, blood pressure, lipids, and body mass index in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, Effects of an educational intervention on plasma levels of LDL cholesterol in type 2 diabetics, Influence of diabetic education on patient metabolic control, Pharmacist-led, primary care-based disease management improves hemoglobin A1c in high-risk patients with diabetes, © The Author 2015. Some researchers support that CM group education was significantly more effective than individual education in improving HbA1c for people with type 2 DM [9, 12]. Learn about the many benefits of participating in group. Similar results have been reported by other studies that evaluated the effectiveness of group education interventions compared with individual education in the primary health care setting in people with type 2 DM [21, 22]. On the other hand, another study concluded that individual education for people with type 2 DM is more effective in HbAc1 control than group education using CMs [8]. A systematic review with meta-analysis, Comparative effectiveness of patient education methods for type 2 diabetes. [The observation of secretogranin â…¢ in the peripheral blood and vitreous of patients with diabetic retinopathy]. Health visitors in Greece are 4-year college graduates studying nursing, health education and promotion. **The within-group differences have been calculated using paired t-tests. [16] indicated that the reduction in HbA1c was 0.60% in patients who received standard care by primary healthcare physicians. Read More. Our finding is also contradictory to the results of a recent systematic review that found no significant changes in BMI between group education and individual diabetes education at 6 months follow up [7]. Peer education is the process whereby well-trained and motivated young people undertake informal or organized educational activities with their peers (those similar to themselves in age, background or interests) over a period of time, aimed at developing their knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and skills and enabling them to be responsible for and protect their own health. Shaping group norms that value a healthy lifestyle. In order to evaluate and compare the two groups we conducted the following measurements in relation to the biochemical markers and BMI. The two health visitors who belonged to the research team undertook the responsibility of allocating sequence, enrolling participants and assigning participants to their groups after fully informing them. Statistical significance was set at P < 0.05 and analyses were conducted using SPSS statistical software (version 17.0). In explaining these findings we should take into consideration that these specific patients were already being monitored at the primary health care setting, knew the staff and lived in the area and, as a result, may have been positively predisposed to change their behaviour. Group-based patient education using Conversation Maps for people with type 2 diabetes is more effective, compared with individual education, in diabetes self-management. While group members are a valuable source of support, formal group therapy sessions offer benefits beyond informal self-help and support groups. As follows are the top advantages of having a good education. What are the Advantages of Education? Within groups, in the intervention group, triglycerides and LDL decreased significantly whereas HDL remained stable. Participants’ HbA1c values were significantly lower in the control group 6 months after the intervention, with an average change value of −0.5 (95% CI: −1.4, −0.3). Additionally, 6 months after the intervention, the increase in the percentage of people with HbA1c <7 mmol/mol was statistically significant only in the intervention group (Ν = 27, 28.7% before and Ν = 4, 3.8% after) (P < 0.001). Choosing Effective Health Education Tools To Reach Your Patients 2014 Midwest Stream Farmworker Health Forum ... Health literacy requires a complex group of reading, listening, analytical and decision-making skills and the ability to apply these skills to health situations. Moreover, BMI remained unchanged in both education groups and for both countries in a study comparing the effectiveness of CMs versus standard care of adults with type 2 diabetes in Spain and Germany [13]. Finally, the role of social support that the group offered in better controlling diabetes was not studied. Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is one of the most costly chronic diseases worldwide. Here are a few points to highlight the advantages of group learning: Effective learning; Generic Skills advancement; Workplace relevance; Development of Social Networks; The group dynamic awareness development; What Makes an Effective Team? Carry out a focus group study if you want to understand people’s views and experiences. The educational techniques they used included brain storming, group discussion, questions and answers and scenario analysis. Some people believe that better health education is the answer to this problem, but others disagree. which have been designed for use by small teams of between 3 and 10 people. See our User Agreement and Privacy Policy. After 6 months, significant differences in changes of the studied parameters were observed between the groups in HbA1c, 1.4 (95% CI: 1.1, 1.7), (P < 0.001) and HDL −4.4 (95% CI: −8.1, −0.8), (P < 0.001) in favour of group education. Negative results from support groups have been reported (Galinsky and Schopler, 1… Regarding group education for people with type 2 DM using CMs, studies are contradictory. By matching people to the right group, it … Search for other works by this author on: Assessment of group versus individual diabetes education: a randomized study, Group education in diabetes: effectiveness and Implementation, Clarke M, and Oxman AD. On the other hand, HDL values (P = 0.001) and LDL (P = 0.018) decreased significantly after 6 months in the control group (Table II). • Describe objectives of Health Education. *The between-group differences have been calculated using analysis of covariance, adjusted for baseline values. The intervention group, instead of receiving standard care, would attend an educational group programme for diabetes management using CMs while the control group would only receive standard care in the context of their regular appointment including information and guidelines from their consultant on an individual level. A randomized, controlled trial recently compared the effectiveness of delivering diabetes education in a group versus an individual setting.6 Glycemic control improved in both groups, with a slightly more marked reduction in the group setting (between-group difference in hemoglobin A 1c of 0.8%, P = 0.05). Therefore, follow-up period lasted from November 2012 to March 2013. It is worth mentioning that the intervention group of this study had lower HbA1c levels before the intervention which means that there was perhaps small room for improvement. Analysis of covariance adjusted for baseline value was used to evaluate between-group differences for the study variables. The most important advantage of health care is the monetary. This study evaluates the effectiveness of group education with the use of CMs for people with type 2 DM in comparison with the standard information provision from the primary healthcare physician to the patient. A recent study using CM groups resulted in significantly higher knowledge for the CM group but no significant differences in clinical outcomes [10]. The study focused on the short-term effects of a behavioural change during a 6 month period. According to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF), 382 million people had diabetes in 2013 and this number is expected to rise to 592 million by 2035, while 175 million people remain undiagnosed. Shaping personal values and beliefs that support healthy behaviors. The Economic Importance of Health Education. Moreover, Hwee et al. Up until now, according to evidence provided, it is not yet very clear if group education using CMs for people with type 2 DM is more effective than individual education in the improvement of clinical outcomes. ‘How diabetes works’ gives the participants the opportunity to discuss in depth the pathophysiology of diabetes. Candidates with an education, regardless of whether it is in college or a trade, have many more employment options than an unskilled worker. Working in a group is an effective and powerful way to learn, and is highly relevant to the work type and workplace. Analysis from the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey. These days cassette player or tape recorder is commonly used media. Norris et al. There is no adequate evidence of which education methods are the most effective in improving clinical outcomes of people with type 2 diabetes. Perhaps the most cost-saving way for the implementation of educational and health promotion programmes for people with type 2 DM in Greece, is the use of the already existing primary healthcare structures together with the development of the existing healthcare personnel. Hello, If we are asked in a task 2 writing question to discuss both views of a topic and to give our opinion, should we tackle our opinion first and. 28.5% of all participants (Ν = 55) constituted the control group and the remaining 71.5% (Ν = 138) the intervention group. Differences in changes of study variables during the follow up period between the two study groups were evaluated using repeated measurements analysis of variance. An older study by Aubert et al. The authors attributed their findings to that both groups (intervention and control) devoted the same amount of time to physical exercise [20]. Secured life: For full access to this pdf, sign in to an existing account, or purchase an annual subscription. Employment. The sample consisted of 193 persons, who were divided into two groups. ... Do the advantages. Looks like you’ve clipped this slide to already. A population-based cohort study, Effectiveness of the kit Conversation Maps in the therapeutic education of diabetic people attending the diabetes unit in Capri, Italy, Impact of conversation map education tools versus regular care on diabetes-related knowledge of people with type 2 diabetes: a randomized controlled study, Efficacy of ongoing group based diabetes self-management education for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Respectively, for people of the control group, the doctor, who was a member of the research team, arranged their next appointment for follow-up, 6 months later. They get covered for their illness, disability or injury at the workplace. Brief educational radio segments can be inserted between programs during primetime hours, when the maximal number of people are tuned in. Physical education programs in schools directly benefit students' physical health. Health education is a profession of educating people about health. Advantages of Group Work More than one Brain Working The biggest advantage of group work is that in a group more than one brain is working and when many people think about the same subject than chances of getting the best possible solution for a given problem increases massively. Recordings for HbA1C were conducted by an analyst (DMC 2000) at the clinic. Radio is a popular medium for health education because it can raise awareness and spread information to a large number of people at a low cost per person. With the proper health care, person can save his time and money in a perfect way. Not everyone benefits from a group scenario, but for some people, 1-on-1 therapy sessions are not beneficial either. Association of Diabetes Care & Education Specialists 125 S. Wacker Dr. Suite 600 Chicago, IL 60606 800.338.3633 Contact Us Only HDL presented statistical change between the groups (P = 0.003). Getting the recommended amount of exercise combats obesity, which subsequently reduces the risk for diabetes, heart disease, asthma, sleep disorders and other illnesses. Regarding group education without CMs, researches support that a significant reduction of HbA1c was observed in favour of group based diabetes education [7, 15]. See our Privacy Policy and User Agreement for details. The advantages and disadvantages of education although seemingly quite clear can be explored to quite a detailed level. As soon as each group completed their education, the members of the research team fixed appointments for the participants for 6 months later for follow up. Also, the Director of the Markopoulo Health Centre approved this study (Prot. The facilitator is the person guiding the discussion. Can increase students tolerance for differences 2. Within groups, participants in the control group only improved HbA1c and LDL and decreased HDL while participants in the intervention group improved most of the parameters that were measured (HbA1c, ΒΜΙ, triglycerides and LDL). Group therapy for mental health treatment can be just what the doctor ordered to help you better cope. Also, permission to have access to the data on all other diabetes patients attending the clinic was not given to us, a fact that limits the representativeness and generalizability of the findings. They learn to tolerate the views of others even if they are unpleasant and contradictory to each others’ views. On the other hand, an older study in a different setting and cultural environment reports that group education is equally effective as individual diabetes education [3]. In the control group, HDL was significantly reduced whereas LDL also significantly decreased. Body weight and height of the participants were measured with digital scales (Seca) with an integrated measuring rod. Moreover, other important risk factors of the participants were not taken into consideration, such as smoking. Cochrane Reviewer's Handbook 4.1.4 [updated October 2001]. Finally, social support offered by the group has most likely contributed to achieving better results. The group education was facilitated by two trained health visitors who were permanent staff at the diabetes outpatient clinic of the health centre and members of the research team. Thus, respect for the view points of others is developed. The mean participants’ age and gender did not differ significantly between the two groups. conclusion health education have the potential to tacle the underlying determinants of oral health and thereby improve the oral health of all sections of has an immediate impact on is vital to the practice and prevention and is the channel for reaching the people and alerting them to health services and resources.the focus of health education is on people &their actions … Health Education Methods and Materials-2015, Change perception change your health thru meditation, Keeping Good Health: Best Practices for Data Health in eTapestry, No public clipboards found for this slide, NoT yeT woRkiNg !! In Greece, existing evidence in assessing the effectiveness of diabetes self-management education, especially group-based education, is sparse and new studies are needed. For permissions, please email:, Effectiveness of pictographs in improving patient education outcomes: a systematic review, Parenting style as longitudinal predictor of adolescents’ health behaviors in Lebanon, Getting the right message: a content analysis and application of the health literacy INDEX tool to online HIV resources in Australia, Is type of practice setting associated with physician’s cultural competency training? Additionally, the study sample is not representative of the general population for people with Type 2 DM, and as a result it is not possible to generalize the conclusions reached in this study, as they were patients of the Diabetic Outpatient Clinic at the Health Centre, had known the research team for a long time, lived in the particular area, a small town near the capital of Greece, had existing social networks and their own community culture. Risk factor changes (HbA1c, ΒΜΙ, tryglycerides, HDL and LDL) for participants before and after the intervention between and within groups. This study was conducted in the Health Centre of the Primary Healthcare Clinic in the City of Markopoulo, 25 km outside Athens, the capital of Greece. We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. There was no statistically significant change in the BMI variable after 6 months between the two groups. Health education can also boost a community's economy by reducing healthcare spending and lost productivity due to preventable illness. Based on the above research findings, both individual and group education for people with type 2 DM have a positive result in clinical outcomes; however, it seems that group education can provide care to a large number of people with DM with reduced human resources requirements. Moreover, a recent systematic review with meta-analysis of 21 studies showed that group education had significant changes, compared with individual education in HbA1c in 6 months (P = 0.001), in 12 months (P = 0.001) and in 2 years (P = 0.000). Recordings were taken at baseline—before the start of the programme—and 6 months after its completion (follow-up), during the patients’ scheduled appointment. Provides students with social support they may need to learn 5. This material is the product of a 3-year international collaboration between the Pharmaceutical Company Lilly and the company Healthy Interactions that works worldwide on health education, as well as the European Branch of the ΙDF [14]. Similarly, in the intervention group participants’ HbA1c values decreased significantly after the intervention, with an average change value of −0.6 (95% CI: −0.8, −0.3; Table II). On the other hand, in Italy, HbA1c and body mass index (BMI) decreased significantly in patients with type 2 DM after attending a course using CM group education [12]. 7. Can improve friendships and students abilities to socialize 3. A randomized controlled trial, Nurse case management to improve glycemic control in diabetic patients in a health maintenance organization, Effectiveness of self-management training in type 2 diabetes: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials, Applying Conversation Maps program as a Nutrition Education Program for Type II Diabetic Patients at Al Noor Hospital-Makkah-Saudi Arabia (2014), Implementation and effectiveness of the first community lifestyle intervention programme to prevent Type 2 diabetes in Greece. Increase the quality, availability, and effectiveness of educational and community-based programs designed to prevent disease and injury, improve health, and enhance quality of life. Moreover, patients’ conversations with the facilitator and the other participants, as well as being able to discuss their own experiences of diabetes, may constitute powerful advantages of group education [23]. You can change your ad preferences anytime. The education for all groups lasted from May to September 2012. This finding coincides with what another study reveals; that CM group discussion for type 2 diabetic people did not significantly modify BMI [18]. A specific method of communication is more useful in a specific setting on a specific group than others. Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is one of the most costly chronic diseases worldwide. Several studies point out that diabetes group education, compared with individual education, was equally effective at improving diabetes control [2, 4, 5]. The educational material consists of four visual maps (CMs) sized 91, 44 cm × 152, 4 cm. All people with type II DM who were patients at the Diabetic Outpatient Clinic at the Health Centre were eligible to participate to the study. Α1 c was reduced by 0.60 ± 1.1 U in the intervention group and by 0.50 ± 1.7 U in the control group. The eligibility criteria included: people diagnosed with type 2 DM, living in the region, aged 18 and over, who did not suffer from hypertension or other serious diseases (heart, stroke, kidney or mental disease), did not take insulin, had not developed any complications, spoke and comprehended the Greek language sufficiently and were willing to participate. K. Merakou, A. Knithaki, G. Karageorgos, D. Theodoridis, A. Barbouni, Group patient education: effectiveness of a brief intervention in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus in primary health care in Greece: a clinically controlled trial, Health Education Research, Volume 30, Issue 2, April 2015, Pages 223–232, BMI is calculated by dividing the weight (kg) with the square of the height (m2) and is used as an assessment indicator for obesity. Another study concluded that clinical outcomes improved in 6 months in both groups (standard care and CM group education) [13]. In our study the time spent with the instructor was only 6 h; however, the instructor was a member of the staff of the Health Centre and patients could visit or call her when necessary. Regular exercise also contributes to cardiovascular health and promotes muscle and bone development. Patient education constitutes a critical tool used to better control diabetes, to help prevent complications and reduce the costs [2]. 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Before giving blood order to compare continuous variables between the intervention group and the advantages! Pdf, sign in to an existing account, or purchase an annual subscription and reduced cost significant difference the. No adequate evidence of whic… advantages of group health Insurance: 1 psychologists with specialized training, were! The mean participants ’ age and gender did not differ significantly between the two we! Limited size of the study was a clinically controlled trial which took in! Existing account, or purchase an annual subscription period 2–18 May 2012 diabetes works ’ gives the the... Tobacco use, for example, cost the United States billions of dollars each year in healthcare costs lost! Described and potential effect of metformin ( remembering Vladimir Dilman ). ] clinical outcomes of people, therapy!

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