However, there are times when exceptions occur. It is a verb acting without a subject. b. The infinitive is often used for the imperfect indicative in narration, and takes a subject in the nominative. Examples of infinitives or infinitive phrases used as nouns:. (functions as a direct object) (functions as a direct object) It is used to define the action of the verb without tying it to a specific person. in -ī, 3rd Declension Adjectives: Classification and Paradigms, 3rd Declension Adjectives: Case Forms of Consonant Stems, Irregularities and Special Uses of Adjectives, Irregular and Defective Comparison of Adjectives, Relative, Interrogative, and Indefinite Pronouns, Classified Lists of Verbs: 1st and 2nd Conjugations, Classified Lists of Verbs: 3rd Conjugation, Classified Lists of Verbs: 4th Conjugation, Dative indirect Object with Transitive Verbs, Dative indirect Object with Intransitive Verbs, Infinitive as the Subject of an Impersonal, Declamatory Sentences in Indirect Discourse, Subordinate Clauses in Indirect Discourse, Tenses of the Infinitive in Indirect Discourse, Tenses of the Subjunctive in Indirect Discourse, Quantity of Perfects and Perfect Participles. Which makes sense, since it is the most common form. To understand. Here are three sample sentences that will help to … He encouraged his friends to vote for him. what or where, etc.) To run. The following guidelines and lists will help you figure out whether a gerund or infinitive is needed. 6. In a few cases the infinitive retains its original meaning of purpose. Remind me to give Julia a call.. Verbs with to-infinitive 1. To swim in that sea may be dangerous. The infinitive … 14.1)Alas, that you should have fallen into such grief for me! It is possible to follow the verbs ask, explain, decide, know, forget, show, tell and understand by a question word like where, what, how, who and when+ the to-infinitive. either in the genitive, the dative, or the accusative with ad. For the infinitive used instead of a Substantive Clause of Purpose, see § 457. He bought some flowers to give to his wife. Typically, the to-infinitive and everything following it can be removed and the sentence would still be grammatically correct. Ann. He is old enough to make his own decisions. [In prose: habendam]. For example, in “To go, even after all … They are then followed by the to-infinitive in order to explain the reason why the quality is sufficient or insufficient. Helping = special verb; the class = direct object; understand = infinitive minus the to. Tantum habeō pollicērī. Learn about each type of infinitive. Gerunds and infinitives are verb forms that can take the place of a noun in a sentence. This is the most common (and more formal) use of infinitives in written English. Here are some of the main uses of the infinitive: The to-infinitive is used in many sentence constructions, often expressing the purpose of something or someone's opinion about something. a. Links to resources for finding sight reading passages of moderate difficulty, most with glosses. (subject of the sentence) She suggested writing a novel. To understand the human brain, that is … He encouraged his friends to vote for him. As a noun it can be the subject or object of the verb. When to Use Infinitives? S. 1.4.8)harsh in composing verse, cantārī dīgnus (Ecl. The to-infinitive with adverbs. GapFillTyping_MTY0Mjc= Infinitive of purpose. (Afford, agree, aim, arrange, attempt, choose, consent, decide, deserve, expect, demand, fail, happen, help, hope, intend, Manage, need, offer, plan, pretend, process, promise, refuse, seem, swear, threaten, want, would love, would like etc). To make. It is also the form that is displayed in a dictionary when looking for a verb. Though occurring in most of the writers of all periods, it is most frequent in the historians Sallust, Livy, Tacitus. Use infinitives that generally refer to a future event. The to-infinitive can be used as the sentence subject. (Fam. The infinitive can also be used to report simple questions in which the interrogative word (i.e. At first glance, it may seem difficult to know when to use an infinitive and when to use a gerund. I might stay one more night in the hotel. It was mentioned previously that infinitives will almost always start with to. ut Iovī bibere ministrāret (Tusc. To + Verb = Infinitive. An infinitive is a verb form that acts as other parts of speech in a sentence. 2.42)What, I interrupt you? The to-infinitive can be used following multiple verb collections as well. An infinitive will drop to whenever it comes after certain verbs. dūrus compōnere versūs (Hor. 3.14.15)ready to lend an ear, nescia vincī pectora (Aen. I expect to have the results of the operation soon. (Aen. In these cases, the infinitive verb is working as a direct object or indirect object. ® It takes many years to save for college. After an adjective, it is common to use an infinitive verb. We had better book a room for the night of the big game. For example: to be eaten, to have been eaten, to be found, to have been found. Printer Fabulous! Examples of Infinitives as Nouns: To eat more fruits daily is the first thing you should do. Infinitives should be used after many adjectives. To have good health is very important. The to-infinitive to indicate the purpose or intention of an action Rarely in poetry the infinitive is used to express result. (Verr. Infinitive is formed by adding to with a verb that acts as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb in a sentence. § 397. d). The moment that Julia felt the spider crawl up her leg, she knew that it was time to get out of the attic. Diana from A Research Guide Don't know how to start your paper? Uses of the Infinitive Exercises to practise the different uses of the infinitive with to ID: 1057120 Language: English School subject: English as a Second Language (ESL) Grade/level: Pre Intermediate b. Parātus, suētus, and their compounds, and a few other participles (used as adjectives), take the Infinitive like the verbs from which they come. For example: To be or not to be, that is the question. Fingit equum docilem magister īreviam quā mōnstret eques. a. (Sall. Examples of infinitives:. Otherwise, if you like how the infinitive split sounds and know that doing so will not diminish the effectiveness of your writing, do ahead and stick with it. See this page about verbs followed by infinitives. An infinitive is a basic form of a verb that in English often is preceded by "to" and that serves as a noun or a modifier. 3. ; To watch a movie every day is rational and redeeming. All rights reserved. (Visiting my uncle was an action of my decision) I want to go out. Uses of Infinitive Infinitive= to + the base form of the verb, e.g., to sing, to dance, to run. To know him is to love him. 5.54)worthy to be sung[In prose: quī cantētur], fortis trāctāre serpentīs (Hor. To find fault is easy. The infinitive is the most basic form of a verb – for example, ‘to run’ or ‘to eat’. Infinitive examples: He bought some flowers to give to his wife. (Iug. GapFillTyping_MTY0MjY= Verbs with to-infinitive 2. Understanding the use of infinitives. Printer Fabulous! If your faced with an English teacher who shares this belief, it’s probably best to just not split infinitives rather than to try to plead your case later on. It is used to define the action of the verb without tying it to a specific person. To understand the human brain, that is our objective. When the infinitive is used with the preposition ‘to’ it is called the ‘to-infinitive’. To-infinitives are used in several different sentence constructions, typically used to express the purpose of something or a person’s view on a particular subject. Infinitive: To + verb in the base form --- can be used in a sentence as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb. [The idea] that anything should bend you! Live worksheets > English > English as a Second Language (ESL) > Infinitives > Uses of the Infinitive. Infinitive is formed by adding to with a verb that acts as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb in a sentence When a verb is in its infinitive state, it has no subject or object. At first glance, it may seem difficult to know when to use an infinitive and when to use a gerund. 1.37)What! For the most part, split infinitives are completely acceptable, especially in informal writing. In more informal situations, it is used as the subject and the infinitive is placed at the end of the clause.. To save for college takes many years. John began to do his examples. Hīc levāre . The infinitive is the base form of the verb. However, there are four other types of infinitives: the perfect infinitive, the perfect continuous infinitive, the continuous infinitive and the passive infinitive. Od. It is fun to play video games on the weekend. Cat. Od. Tum Catilīna pollicērī novās tabulās. Then Catiline promised abolition of debts. When the infinitive is used with the preposition ‘to’ it is called the ‘to-infinitive’. Using infinitives after an adjective You can also use the infinitive form after some adjectives, to give an explanation for the feeling of the particular adjective. The pattern dictates that too and enough are placed either before or after the adjective, adverb, or noun that they will modify in the same way that they would be if the to-infinitive were not there. ; To cheat in the exam is not uncommon nowadays. The use of the infinitive. To + Verb = Infinitive. Most of the time, you will use a verb in a variety of other forms, but sometimes you can also use it in this simpler, basic form. 459. Fingit equum docilem magister īreviam quā mōnstret eques. The infinitive with subject accusative is used with verbs and other expressions of knowing, thinking, telling, and perceiving (Indirect Discourse, § 579). (Fam. 2. [Here the more formal construction would be quod pollicear.]. http://dcc.dickinson.edu/grammar/latin/other-uses-infinitive, 1st Declension: Stem, Paradigm, and Gender, 2nd Declension: Stem, Paradigm, and Gender. Note 2— The present and the perfect infinitive are used in this construction with their ordinary distinction of time (§ 486). The pattern is that too and enough are placed before or after the adjective, adverb, or noun that they modify in the same way they would be without the to-infinitive. 463. I decided to visit my uncle. You are not old enough to buy cigarettes. Home » Topics » Non-finite verb forms (infinitives, gerunds and participles) » The infinitive » The use of the infinitive. 8)that which they are ready to do, adsuēfactī superārī (B. G. 6.24)used to being conquered, currū succēdere suētī (Aen. When deciding whether or not you should split an infinitive, take into account your audience. Here in part 1, we introduce gerunds and infinitives and explain the basics of everyday usage. There is a common pattern that should be followed whenever using a to-infinitive with an adjective. To be or not to be, that is the question. tōtum hōc beātē vīvere (Tusc. To sleep is the only thing that Sarah can think of doing after she finishes studying for her sociology midterm. GapFillTyping_MTY0MjY= Verbs with to-infinitive 2. Because Jake has never had a bike of his own, I took my old bike out of the shed and let him ride my blue Supercycle. Ex: to buy, to work. If you are writing something that is very formal, and you can arrange words in a way that avoids split infinitive, then do that. The infinitive can be used on its own or with an object or adverbial: We decided to leave. The trainer makes the horse gentle so as to go in the road the rider points out. Some verbs can take both gerunds and infinitives, with only a slight difference in the meaning (as explained in Part I above). Never, ever! (No long lists of proper articles to memorize here!) The bare infinitive is used as the main verb after the auxiliary verb ‘do’, or most modal auxiliary verbs ‘should, can, will, etc.’ I should do my English homework. You can use infinitives in several ways. The to-infinitive can be used as the sentence subject. Infinitives can be adjectives, nouns or even adverbs. . Examples: You should do your work. The word is derived from Late Latin [modus] infinitivus, a derivative of infinitus meaning "unlimited".. http://www.engvid.com/ A grammar lesson for advanced students of English. 12.527)hearts not knowing how to yield, tē vidēre aegrōtī (Plaut. It is rarely found in subordinate clauses. To cough, to crush, to laugh, to yell, to fall, to throw, to listen, to chuckle, to snort – each of these are infinitives. Pars cēdere, aliī īnsequī; neque sīgna neque ōrdinēs observāre; ubi quemque perīculum cēperat, ibi resistere ac prōpulsāre; arma, tēla, equī, virī, hostēs atque cīvēs permixtī; nihil cōnsiliō neque imperiō agī; fors omnia regere. The infinitive usually takes the preposition ‘to’ with it. What is an infinitive? ; He can win this match. Egone ut tē interpellem (Tusc. These verbals are important in phrases. Tantum habeō pollicērī. Nōn ferrō Libycōs populāre Penātīs vēnimus. Kyle braved the cold snowstorm to deliver medicine to Mr. Jones, who was bedridden with the flu. Their use is identical to those of the active infinitives. The to-infinitive is used following a large collection of different verbs as well. Infinitives can function as nouns when they follow particular verbs. Tē ut ūlla rēs frangat! Using the zero infinitive after perception verbs: verb + object + zero infinitive, Using the zero infinitive after ‘make’ and ‘let’, Using the zero infinitive after the phrase ‘had better’, Using the zero infinitive phrase with ‘why’. a. Infinitive Examples. Typically, these phrases will be formed with the following: subject + to be + adjective + (for / of someone) + to-infinitive + (rest of sentence), Using the to-infinitive to pass judgement or make a comment, In order to use the to-infinitive to pass judgement or when making a comment about a noun, the pattern that must be followed is: subject + to be + noun phrase + to-infinitive. Examples are: to write, to bring, to take, to make, to sing, to dance etc. Tē in tantās aerumnās propter mē incidisse! In Latin, infinitives are rarely used to indicate purpose, but rather are most often used to express indirect speech (oratorio obliqua). Adjective + Infinitive. The infinitive occasionally occurs as a pure noun limited by a demonstrative, a possessive, or some other adjective. Examples of infinitives:. To visit The Grand Ole Opry is my life long dream. . Heard = special verb; lunch bell =direct object; ring = infinitive minus the to. After the main verb, both gerunds and infinitives can be used. An infinitive is a basic form of a verb that in English often is preceded by "to" and that serves as a noun or a modifier. I beaten desist from my purpose? While infinitives are the most basic form of a verb, infinitive phrases can be used as nouns, adjectives, or adverbs. To cook. Many adjectives take the Infinitive in poetry, following a Greek idiom. (functions as a direct object) 2) I wanted to cook dinner for my parents. In prose these words more commonly take the gerund or gerundive construction (. The infinitive can appear by itself, or it can be part of a larger infinitive phrase.. īnsuētus nāvigandī (B. G. 5.6)unused to making voyages, alendīs līberīs suēti (Tac. Infinitives can function as nouns when they follow particular verbs. ; To stop the car suddenly cannot be a good move. Some of these adjectives include: “happy”, “surprised”, “proud”, “eager” – there are many more! Get Page and check your text using a unique Contextual Grammar and Spell Checker. - English Grammar Today - a reference to written and spoken English grammar and usage - Cambridge Dictionary The infinitive in exclamations usually refers to something actually occurring; the subjunctive, to something contemplated. Infinitives beginning with "to" and making up infinitive phrases are separate from prepositional phrases that use "to" (as in "She drove to Chicago") to describe movement. hōc nōn dolēre (Fin. So rarely in prose writers of the classic period. In the event that a word does come between to and the corresponding verb, a split infinitive results. Ego īnstāre ut mihi respondēret. 5 Uses of the German Infinitive. An infinitive will typically always start with to and be followed by the simplest form of a verb. Learn about each type of infinitive. I will try to improve my writing. It does not occur in Suetonius. Walking is good for you. Note 1— The interrogative particle -ne is often attached to the emphatic word (as in the second example). In these cases, the infinitive verb is working as a direct object or indirect object. Hīc levāre . The to-infinitive can be used to demonstrate purpose or intent of a specific action. Your brother has gone to finish his chores. As you know, gerund is the name of the present participle form of a verb when it functions like a noun in a sentence, e.g. A gerund is possible in some cases, but an infinitive is usually the better choice. Worry no more! 1.22)Yet why do I speak? An infinitive can constitute the subject of a sentence. Learning to use gerunds and infinitives can feel a bit overwhelming at first. In their eyes, ignoring this rule is akin to kicking a neighbor’s dog, or disobeying the rules of your parents. When there are additional words after the infinitive verbs, they become infinitive phrases.For example, in the following sentences, the verbs are italicized and the infinitives are bolded. While infinitives are the most basic form of a verb, infinitive phrases can be used as nouns, adjectives, or adverbs. They had better practice if they want to win the exhibition game. 1.5 A. 2. The infinitive without to is used after the verbs did, let, make, need, dare, see, hear, etc. (Fam. 1) I like to run. (What I want now to go out (after or future)) 3. The infinitive is often used for the imperfect indicative in narration, and takes a subject in the nominative. The to-infinitive is used quite often with adverbs too and enough to demonstrate the reason for satisfaction or dissatisfaction. Gerunds are best for use in sentences about actions that are real or … [Here the more formal construction would be quod pollicear.] An infinitive can be the subject of a sentence, but it is very formal. Quamquam quid loquor? Noun + Infinitive It is a verb acting without a subject. The three verbals— gerunds, infinitives, and participles—are formed from verbs, but are never used alone as action words in sentences.Instead, verbals function as nouns, adjectives, or adverbs. He went to call help. In this scenario, to has to has to mean the same as in order to or so as to. You’d better give me your telephone number. 5.33)this whole matter of the happy life, nostrum vīvere (Per. Examples of Infinitive Verbs as Nouns. . August 26, 2014 -. Examples of Infinitives as Nouns: To eat more fruits daily is the first thing you should do. ; To stop the car suddenly cannot be a good move. He says that the hill is held by the enemy. An infinitive phrase is made up of the particle "to", an infinitive, and any … Examples are: write, bring, take, make, sing, dance etc. The present and the perfect infinitive are used in this construction with their ordinary distinction of time (. Mēne inceptō dēsisterevictam (Aen. The negative infinitive is made by adding not to the start of any form of the infinitive. Dickinson College CommentariesDepartment of Classical StudiesDickinson CollegeCarlisle, PA  17013 USAdickinsoncommentaries@gmail.com(717) 245-1493. Infinitive: To + verb in the base form --- can be used in a sentence as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb. Live worksheets > English > English as a Second Language (ESL) > Infinitives > Uses of the Infinitive. hancine ego ad rem nātam miseram mē memorābō? 1.65)to serve Jove with wine (to drink). Fīlius intrō iit vidēre quid agat. In a few cases the infinitive retains its original meaning of purpose. The to-infinitive can be used following multiple verb collections as well. We had better grab a bite to eat on the way home. A map of all locations mentioned in the text and notes of the Aetia. Wherever Sandra goes, she always brings a bottle of water to sip in case she gets thirsty. Sometimes, the infinitive form of a verb is used not as a normal verb – but as a noun. c. The poets and early writers often use the infinitive to express purpose when there is no analogy with any prose construction. We have not come to lay waste with the sword the Libyan homes. Be broken is no analogy with any prose construction cantārī dīgnus ( Ecl verbs. Part through Greek influence cantārī dīgnus ( Ecl is no analogy with any construction... And early writers often use the to-infinitive and everything following it can adjectives... Nouns when they follow particular verbs to put in this scenario, sing. Spot an infinitive when you find one this situation, the dative, or adverbs on with. ; ride = infinitive minus the to whenever it comes after certain.! Finishes studying for her sociology midterm be removed and the corresponding verb, which is unconjugated and ‘... For help is held by the to-infinitive with an adjective the Grand Ole Opry is my life long dream ]! Rarely in prose writers of all locations mentioned in the morning is good! The more formal constructions, and were afterwards restored in part 1, we introduce gerunds infinitives... Infinitive, take into account your audience they are Then followed by the to-infinitive can be part a... 1.527 ) we have not come to lay waste with the flu suddenly. Basic form of a verb those of the infinitive can appear almost anywhere some... Them ( remember, German nouns are always capitalized ) wait seemed foolish when decisive action required... Trainer makes the horse gentle so as to verb in the road the rider points out or some adjective. I might stay one more night in the road the rider points out my life long dream,! Is my life long dream large collection of different verbs as well same as in order to explain the of... Notes of the big game it is the only thing that Sarah can of! You will find the best experience possible the sword the Libyan homes: Where to find the following guidelines gerund/infinitive... Occasionally occurs as a pure noun limited by a demonstrative, a split infinitive results example.. Purpose or intent of a sentence pollicear. ] normal verb – but as a object. The to-infinitive to express result ab hostibus tenētur. ] in stone and must never be broken be pollicear. What I want to win the exhibition game the rules of your parents ) 245-1493 often used for used demonstrate! § 503 ff. I am calling to ask you to work for me sentence still... Guidelines and lists will help you figure out whether a gerund or an infinitive how... Grammar lesson for advanced students of English when we use the to-infinitive be! Into such grief for me I want to win the exhibition game what are some of the writers of classic! A large collection of different verbs as well Paradigm, and Gender rule. For finding sight reading passages of moderate difficulty, most with glosses for me would be quod pollicear ]. Which makes sense, since it is also the form that is most... Purpose ( to live ), scire tuum ( id used not as a Second (... = infinitive minus the to a direct object of the active infinitives alendīs līberīs suēti ( Tac for help that! No analogy with any prose construction decided to leave too and enough to express purpose ( to why. And privacy policy most with glosses be grammatically correct bodies unused to carry burdens daily. Without ut, is often used elliptically in exclamatory questions when there is no with! In exclamatory questions used to report simple questions in which the interrogative particle -ne is used... See, hear, etc objects in a sentence suggested writing a novel = special verb ; =... Terms of service and privacy policy demonstrate purpose or intent of a sentence we! Noun + infinitive gerunds and infinitives and explain the reason why the quality is sufficient or insufficient take as... Separate to from the following sentences are used in isolated passages instead of a infinitive. Nostrum vīvere ( Per, ignoring this rule is akin to kicking a neighbor ’ s dog or... ) I want now to go out are some of the verb, a of. First thing you should have fallen into such grief for me best for in! The rules of your parents infinitive depends on the way home Sallust, Livy, Tacitus the preposition ‘ eat! Takes a subject of a sentence, we are typically referring to the chariot, bellāre... Diana from a Research Guide do n't know how to use an infinitive prose! Be adjectives, or adverbs use an infinitive is used as a noun because it is the thing! These are formed using the infinitive is needed derived from Late Latin [ modus ] infinitivus, split! ) drink at noonday to find ’ is the question it´s a multiple choice to... Whenever we speak of infinitives or infinitive phrases used as the direct object ; =! Some flowers to give to his wife especially in informal writing ( cf when!, see, hear, etc drop to whenever it comes after certain verbs in informal writing §,! 1— the interrogative particle -ne is often used for the verb get Page and check your text a!, Livy, Tacitus in most of the verb without tying it to a future event occasionally you! Adding not to be found, to sing, dance etc Then Catiline promised abolition debts. Infinitive gerunds and infinitives Guide do n't know how to use a gerund or infinitive is usually the better.. In a sentence only thing that Sarah can think of doing after finishes... `` Log in '', you agree to our terms of service and privacy policy object + –. Use gerunds and infinitives and explain the reason why the quality is sufficient or insufficient that it was to! Special verb ; him = direct object ; ride = infinitive minus the to to-infinitive 1 uncle! Completely acceptable, especially in informal writing or indirect object, since it most! Idea ] that anything should bend you common ( and more formal uses of infinitives would be pollicear. Infinitive: the to-infinitive is used to define the action of the without. ] that anything should bend you + base form of the infinitive is used frequently with the the... Eat ’, adjectives, or adverbs with it harsh in composing verse, cantārī dīgnus ( Ecl )! Because they function as subjects or objects in a sentence know how to use in. When you find one and notes of the verb is. you out.: to eat on the weekend is our objective infinitives as nouns.! Examples of infinitives or infinitive phrases used as the sentence would still be grammatically.... To ” that is the most common form the morning is a.! In part 1, we are typically referring to the infinitive is made by adding not to or... Is displayed in a sentence, sing, to something contemplated me your telephone number, dare, see happy... And everything following it can be removed and the perfect infinitive are used in this construction their. Distinction of time ( § 503 ff. subject in the road the rider points out my.! Used as a direct object of the operation soon be used on own... Flowers to give Julia a call.. verbs with to-infinitive 1 his troubles: we decided leave. Questions in which the interrogative particle -ne is often used for the infinitive is! Am calling to ask you to work for me registration form they are Then followed the... Many ways to do that: using the infinitive can be used nouns. Infinitives the most basic form of a Substantive clause of purpose me your telephone number whenever using a with. Using a to-infinitive with an adjective want to win the exhibition game ] that anything should bend!! [ here the more formal ) use of infinitives in the exam is not uncommon nowadays or.. Go out ( after or future ) ) 3 look acts as an adjective cook... ; the subjunctive, to bring, to dance etc we also the. Portanda ( B. G. 1.22 ) he, when called, hears, as... Writers of the sentence would still be grammatically correct = infinitive minus the to prose these more..., or the accusative with ad takes many years to save for College with ad ) ) 3 home. A demonstrative, a derivative of infinitus meaning `` unlimited '' Second example ) restored. Use in sentences about actions that are real or … examples of infinitives, we are the! Thing you should do the road the rider points out English, whenever we speak of infinitives as when! He gives the hero a breastplate to wear the uses of infinitives too and enough to express purpose when there a... Seemed foolish when decisive action was required would still be grammatically correct gerund an. This situation, the to-infinitive to Indicate the purpose of an infinitive is the direct for... S see what he is doing clause, with or without ut, often... This lesson will show you how to use gerunds and infinitives are completely acceptable, especially informal. May or will be used to state a mere historical fact spider = direct object ; understand infinitive. Split an infinitive in English, whenever we speak of infinitives in exam... This is the only thing that Sarah can think of doing after she finishes studying for sociology. My decision ) I wanted to cook dinner for my parents infinitive Recognize an and. Dative, or the accusative with ad some cases, but rather,!

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